Retirement Planning for Small Businesses
By our own Caitllin Koppelman
for Jackson Magazine
Planning for retirement as a small business owner is important for you and your employees. Small businesses have unique needs. Thankfully, you have various options when it comes to retirement plans and a little bit of exploration can help you find a solution that best fits the needs of you and your employees.
Some of your retirement plan options include:
- SEP IRAs
- SIMPLE IRAs
- Traditional or Safe Harbor 401(k)s
- Profit-sharing plans
A Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) IRA is funded by employer contributions. Benefits for all employees must be uniform (ie: the same percentage of compensation). Contributions are limited to the lesser of either 25% of the employee’s compensation or $55,000 per year. SEP IRAs allow you a relatively low-maintenance way to contribute to your employees’ retirement, and contributions are deductible by the employer for income tax purposes.
A Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) IRA allows for both employer and employee contributions. Employee contributions are limited to $12,500 per year, and employers have to either match up to 3% of employee contributions or contribute 2% of the employee’s salary.
Like a SIMPLE IRA, 401(k) Plans allow employees to save money in a tax-deferred account for retirement. Traditional 401k plans hold “pre-tax” money, so the money will be taxed when it’s withdrawn from the account for retirement expenses. 401k plans can be set up to allow Roth (or “after-tax”) contributions as well. Employees can contribute a regular amount into the account, straight out of their paycheck. 401k contribution limits are significantly higher than Traditional IRA limits. An employee could defer $18,500 for 2018, plus an additional $6000 if he/she is age 50 or over. Employers can choose to match funds contributed by employees. Keep in mind that 401k plans require a bit more administrative work and legal documentation. A Safe Harbor 401k plan mandates employer contributions.
A Profit-sharing Plan gives employees a portion of company profits. Employers have a great deal of latitude when it comes to contributions: employers can give as much as they want (up to the annual contribution limit, which is the lesser of $55,000 per year or 100% of the employee’s compensation) or none at all, depending on the year’s profits. Contributions do have to be distributed proportionately to the employees. The administration of a profit-sharing plan can be burdensome for some employers, depending on the number of participants in the plan.
There are two major things to consider when selecting a plan: contributions and administration. If you’re considering starting a plan for yourself and your employees, you should discuss your options in detail with your GuideStream financial advisor and your CPA.
*information adapted from an article written by Advicent Solutions, an entity unrelated to GuideStream Financial.